Category Archives: Gynecologist in Lajpat Nagar

BREAST CANCER

Every woman is at risk of Breast cancer
“The only person who can save you is you” – Sheryl Crow

SYNOPSIS

Breast cancer (BC) is the biggest killer-cancer of women in the world, and in India. In the next fifteen years, BC will kill over twelve lakh women in India. But it doesn’t have to. A few life style changes can reduce the incidence of BC; and early detection can increase the survival rate.

BC was a disease of old age. No longer. Twenty-five years ago, 69% of BC patients in India were age 50 and above. But now only 52% are 50 and above; 48% are less than 50; and a few are in the teens.

Every woman is at risk of BC. It cannot be prevented. The risk increases with age, heredity and genetic predisposition; and the risk reduces with healthy weight, regular exercise and healthy diet.

Early detection is the key to survival. Early detection can be by self-examination of breasts, or by screening by imaging devices such as X-ray, Ultra sound, and MRI. However, confirmation is only possible by biopsy.

Depending on the stage at which the cancer is detected, the treatment can be surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and other adjuvant therapies.

If detected early, BC is treatable. If detected late, it is fatal. Five-year survival rate for Stage 1 BC is 100%; for stage 4 is 22%.

So exercise and eat healthy and you would have done your bit to reduce your cancer risk. And do regular cancer screening and you would increase the probability of early detection and of successful treatment.

INTRODUCTION

Breast cancer (BC) will kill about 80,000 women in India in 2020. For every two women with BC, one will die. Many of these deaths are preventable simply by early detection. But detection is often late and thus fatal. Lack of awareness is the major reason for late detection.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in India, 27% of all cancers, closely followed by cervical cancer at 22%. Incidence of and death due to BC is more than that due to cervical cancer. BC is rising at a rapid rate. By 2030, the number of BC cases will rise to about 200,000 a year and deaths to about 100,000 a year. India has the worst survival rate from BC, and the highest number of women dying from BC, in the world. Even if we start a cancer awareness program today, 20-30 years will pass before its effect becomes discernible.

BC was a disease of old age. Twenty-five years ago, 69% of BC patients were above the age of 50. Now 48% are below the age 50; and 20% of them below the age of 40.

Breast cancer cannot be prevented. But BC incidence can be reduced by a few simple lifestyle changes; and the survival rate can be improved by early detection.

WHAT IS CANCER ?

Our body is composed of many different types of cells. These cells grow and divide in a controlled manner to produce more cells as required by the body. Also, the older cells and the damaged cells die.

However, sometimes, the genetic material of one cell gets damaged or changed [mutation] and the cell becomes immortal: that is, it will not die. When this ancestor cell divides, its descendant cells are also immortal. This gives rise to a limitless number of immortal descendant cells. The number of cells is far in excess of what the body needs. The extra cells then form a mass that is called a tumour.

These immortal cells are called cancer cells. The cancer cells are: immortal; capable of limitless division, and thus of limitless growth in the number of cells; and capable of spreading [Metises] to other parts of the body through blood and lymph system.

There are more than 100 types of cancers. Not all cancers form tumours: cancers of the blood and the bone-marrow [leukaemia], for example, do not form tumours.

Most cancers are named for the body part in which they begin: colon cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer and so on.

WHAT IS BREAST CANCER ?

Breast consists of lobules (milk producing glands), ducts (tiny tubes that carry the milk from lobules to the nipple) and blood and lymphatic vessels.
Breast cancer is a malignant tumour that starts in the cells of the breast. It begins in the ducts; sometimes in the lobules; and rarely, in other cells of the breast.

It then spreads through the breast lymph vessels to lymph nodes under the arms and thence to other parts of the body.

WHO IS AT RISK OF BREAST CANCER ?

Every woman is at risk of breast cancer. In India, one in 28 women will get breast cancer. Certain factors increase the risk of BC.

  •  AGE. Cancer is a disease of old age: most cancers begin to strike at age 60 and above. But now cancer is also striking, though only rarely as yet, the teenagers. Risk of breast cancer, for example, is about 0.25% for a 30-year old woman but increases to about 11% in a seventy-year old. In different countries, breast cancer risk in a 70-year old is 54% to 154% higher than in a 30-year old. Thus, as longevity has increased, so has the cancer incidence.
  • HEREDITARY. If first degree relatives [mother/father/brother/sister] had cancer, the risk of cancer is increased.
  • GENETICS. A person can be genetically predisposed to get cancer. A woman who has a family history of breast cancer is statistically more likely to get breast cancer. However, only a small percentage, less than 0.3% of population, is genetically disposed to get cancer. And less than 3-10% of all cancers are because of genetic predisposition. In women with BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, the probability of getting breast and ovarian cancer is more than 75%. Mutations in a few other genes [PTEN, CDH 1, TP 53 etc.] also increase the risk though not as much.
  • OBESITY. In obese postmenopausal women breast cancer risk is twice as much as in the non-obese women.
  •  DIET. Diet contributes to up-to 80% of cancers of colon, prostate and breast; and also contributes to cancers of pancreas, lung, stomach and esophagus. Alcohol, red meat, sugar increase the risk of cancer.
  • SMOKING, night work, no children or child born after age 30, recent use of oral contraceptives (reverts to normal on stopping), HRT, and Chemicals in environment – increase the cancer risk.
  •  MENOPAUSE. Late menopause increases the risk.

REDUCING THE RISK

Healthy weight, physical activity – brisk walking, cycling, swimming – 45-60 minutes five or more days a week, Breast feeding, no red meat, less sugar and less alcohol lowers the risk.

Controversy about whether diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes and low in total fat (butter, oil), more vitamins, Marine Omega 3 fatty acids (found in seafood (e.g. fish oils) and in walnut, seeds, flaxseed oil etc.), and antiperspirants and bras reduce the risk. Abortion and Breast Implants have no effect.

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators such as tamofoxien reduce BC risk but increase the risk of thromboembolism and endometrial cancer.
So eat well and exercise and you would have done your bit to reduce your cancer risk.

EARLY DETECTION

Since cancer-prevention is not possible, the saying, “prevention is the cure” is amended to “early detection is the cure.”

Only about 10% of cancer deaths are because of primary tumour. Most of the deaths are because of metastasis – spreading of the cancer to other parts of the body. Once metastasis happens, it is very difficult to treat. Early detection of cancer is therefore of utmost importance.

Several ways of early detection:

1. SELF-EXAMINATION OF BREASTS
More than 80% cancers are detected by women doing self-examination of breasts. The examination should be done every month, 5-7 days after menorrhoea. Do the examination as shown in the three pictures. Look for the following:

  • Lumps in breast (less than 20% are cancer) or in lymph nodes in armpits.
  • Thickening of breasts
  • One breast becoming larger than other
  • A nipple changing position or shape or becoming inverted
  • Discharge from nipple
  • Constant pain in part of breast or armpit
  • Swelling beneath the armpit or around the collarbone

In case of palpated anomaly, consult your gynecologist.

The limitations of self-examination are:

• Only 20% women do self-examination of breasts.
• The tumour/changes are large by the time they are felt and this delay in detection can adversely affect the treatment outcome.

2. IMAGING TECHNIQUES
Early detection of cancer is required and is possible by using Imaging Techniques. Six Imaging Techniques are available:

• X-ray (Mammography)
• Ultra sound (Sonography)
• MRI
• Computer Assisted Detection (CAD)
• CT-scan
• PET

A visual inspection by endoscopy can also be done.

• MAMMOGRAPHY.
X-rays examination. Small neoplasmatic tissue formations can be seen.
• SONOGRAPHY
Sonography is done in addition to Mammography to rule out possible cysts and to estimate the size of the tumour. However, tumours smaller than 5 mm cannot be detected.
• MRI
MRI is used to find out if the breast has been affected by more than one tumour.
• COMPUTER ASSISTED DETECTION (CAD)
CAD is used to point out possibly diseased regions. It is used mainly as a second opinion to the report of the doctor.

LIMITATIONS OF IMAGING

• Imaging techniques magnify the tumour much as the magnifying glass magnifies the letters in a book. Normal letter size, called font, is 12. If the font size is halved, that is made 6, you may still be able to identify the letter. But if the font is reduced still further, say to 3 or 4, you will not be able to identify the letter even with the magnifying glass. In a similar way, the imaging techniques cannot identify tumours that are small.
• The QUALITY of cancer is more important than the QUANTITY. A small tumour can be more dangerous than a large tumour. Imaging can tell the quantity of the tumour, that is, its size, but cannot tell the quality of the tumour.

• Most of the time, Imaging cannot even tell whether a tumour is cancerous or not.

CONFIRMING CANCER

The only absolute way to confirm cancer is by biopsy: a small tissue from the tumour is taken and microscopically examined to check for cancer.

TYPES OF BIOPSY

• Punching Biopsy. Done in a locally-sedated state.
• Needle Biopsy. Done with a syringe and a special needle. As painful as venepuncture.
• Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation (ABBI). Done with X-ray to ensure localisation of target. Only a few doctors are experienced in this technique.

Microscopic examination of biopsy is sufficient; but in a few rare cases specialized lab tests are required.

CANCER TREATMENT

Even small localised tumours have the potential of metastasis and therefore need to be treated. The treatment is surgery, medications (hormonal therapy and chemotherapy), radiation and immunotherapy.

Surgery offers the single largest benefit. Used along with chemotherapy and radiation, the local relapse rate is reduced and the overall survival rate may increase.

SURGERY

  • Mastectomy: remove whole breast.
  • Quadrantectomy: remove quarter breast.
  • Lumpectomy: remove small part of breast.
  • Breast Reconstruction Surgery or breast prostheses: to simulate breast.

Neo-adjuvant, that is prior to surgery, and Adjuvant that is after and in addition to surgery, medication is used as part of treatment. For example, Neo-adjuvant use of aspirin may reduce the mortality from Breast Cancer.

Adjuvant Therapies are:

Radiation (negative effect on normal cells) to kill cancer cells in tumour bed and regional lymph nodes that may have escaped surgery. It reduces the risk by 50 – 66 % (i.e., 1/2 to 2/3 reduction of risk). It is confined to region being treated. But only solid tumour can be treated.

Therapies using drugs/agents etc.

  • Chemotherapy (negative effect on normal cells). Uses drugs, usually two or more drugs in combination, to destroy cancer cells.
  • Targeted Therapy that became available in 1990s that uses drugs that inhibit enzymes.
  • Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in which the agent is an antibody
  • Immunotherapy that uses patient’s immune systems to fight cancer using drugs.
  • Hormone Blocking Therapy. Uses Estrogen Receptors (ER +) Tamoxifen and Progesterone Receptors (PR +) Anastrozole that block the receptors.

Experimental Cancer Treatment
1. Gene Therapy
2. Ultrasound Energy.

Alternative Medicine.

Patients with good prognosis are offered less invasive treatment – e.g. lumpectomy + radiation + hormone.
Patients with poor prognosis are offered more aggressive treatment – extensive mastectomy + radiation + chemotherapy + adjuvant medication.

TREATMENT SUCCESS RATE

If the cancer is detected early, that is at Stage 1, prognosis is excellent and usually chemotherapy is not required.

If detected in Stage 2 & 3 prognosis is progressively poorer with a greater risk of recurrence. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are required.

If detected in Stage 4, that is metastatic cancer (spread to distant sites), prognosis is poor. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies are used. But the 10-year survival rate is 5% without treatment and 10 % with optimal treatment.

In India, more than 60% of the BC’s are diagnosed at stage III or IV. Hence the low survival rate.

For Consultation with Best Gynecologist in Delhi  contact us : +91-9999886583, +91-9999889464

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS

Cancer patients need psychological and emotional support. Besides the family, such support can be provided by support groups who are trained and experienced in providing such support. ‘Cancer Sahyog’ is one such support group in India.

CONCLUSION

Cancer is a 3200 year old disease. It is endogenous, a part of life-process. So it can neither be eradicated, nor prevented, nor cured.

As yet.

Over the past 2000 years, the survival rate for many cancers has improved dramatically: life expectancy increased by 20-30 years. But for a few other cancers – metastatic pancreas cancer, metastatic breast cancer, in-operable gallbladder cancer – improvement has been marginal: life extended by just a few months.

Late detection of cancer is fatal. The causes for late detection are many but lack of awareness is the principal cause. Other main causes are: patient being shy, social stigma and doctors’ ignorance because of which the treatment is delayed. An awareness program with Best Gynecologist in south Delhi will address all these issues.

Present state of our knowledge makes us believe that cancer prevention or cure is not possible because cancer is a product of the processes essential to the life process.

Will some radical discovery in the future make cancer prevention and cure possible? We don’t know. But we can always hope.

Because as Richard Clauser, Director, National Cancer Institute, USA, says about the future of cancer cure, “There are far more good historians than there are prophets.”

REFERENCES

1. India still has a low breast cancer survival rate of 66%: study: For every 2 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, one woman dies of it in India https://www.livemint.com/Science/UaNco9nvoxQtxjneDS4LoO/India-still-has-a-low-breast-cancer-survival-rate-of-66-st.html
2. Epidemiology of breast cancer in Indian women: Breast cancer epidemiology: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313545712_Epidemiology_of_breast_cancer_in_Indian_women_Breast_cancer_epidemiology
3. Epidemiology of breast cancer in Indian women
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28181405
4. BREAST CANCER INDIA
Correct information is .. half the war won already
http://www.breastcancerindia.net/statistics/trends.html
5. Breast Cancer Survival Rates
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/understanding-a-breast-cancer-diagnosis/breast-cancer-survival-rates.html
6. The Top 5 Cancers Affecting Women Top 5 Cancers Affecting Women
https://www.everydayhealth.com/womens-health/cancers-affecting-women-today.aspx https://www.everydayhealth.com/womens-health/cancers-affecting-women-today.aspx https://www.everydayhealth.com/womens-health/cancers-affecting-women-today.aspx
7. The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer – a book by Siddhartha Mukherjee, a physician and oncologist. Available at Amazon and at Flipcart

PAIN DURING SEX: VAGINISMUS

VAGINISMUS

SYNOPSIS

A woman may have pain during intercourse, or on insertion of a tampon or a clamp in the vagina. Such pain is often caused by a condition called Vaginismus. Pain can range from just discomfort to so severe that breathing may cease temporarily. A woman may not be able to have intercourse because of vaginismus and this can adversely affect her relationship with her partner.

The cause of vaginismus is not known. It can be physical or emotional or a combination of the two.

There is no definitive medical test to diagnose vaginismus. Diagnosis is based on medical history, gynecological examination and tests to rule out other causes of pain. The condition is rare. Physician may not therefore have adequate experience and misdiagnosis is possible.

Treatment is physical, doing Kegel exercises; or emotional by psychotherapist and sex counsellors; and, usually, both running concurrently.

Treatment success-rate is nearly one hundred percent. Results may take a few weeks to a few months to appear. Kegel exercises should be continued even after the treatment has succeeded.

Woman have satisfying sex life after a successful treatment.
So do not hesitate; do not delay; do not hold back. Speak to your partner; speak to your therapist. Speak now.

INTRODUCTION

A small number of women have pain during intercourse. Such pain is often because of vaginismus, also called vaginism. In this condition, insertion of a tampon, penis or speculum into the vagina causes the pelvic floor muscles to go into a spasm causing mild to severe pain that makes insertion difficult or impossible. The woman is thus unable to have intercourse, or undergo gynecological examination (Pap tests), and this can cause frustration and distress.
A recent study estimated vaginismus incidence at 5% to 47% in people complaining of sexual problems. The wide variation is because of cultural differences and society’s expectations of sexuality.

Different forms of vaginismus are:

• Primary vaginismus is a lifetime condition. But women discover it from the pain they have during their first vaginal penetration – using tampon, having sex, or Pap smear test.
• Secondary vaginismus happens at a later stage in life; before that, woman has no difficulty in having intercourse. It is caused by a specific life-event such as a yeast infection, childbirth, and other such events.
• Global vaginismus is always present, and any object will trigger it.
• Situational vaginismus occurs only in certain situations. It may happen during sex but not during gynecological exams or tampon insertion.

CAUSE 

Vaginismus is idiopathic – that is, its cause is unknown. It can be because of medical factors, or emotional factors, or a combination of the two. It is linked to anxiety and fear of having sex. It can be anticipatory: that is, happens because the person expects it to happen.

The medical/physical factors are:

• vulvar vestibulitis syndrome, a sub-clinical inflammation in which pain occurs only when penetration is attempted.
• urinary tract infections
• vaginal yeast infections
• health conditions, such as cancer or lichen sclerosis
• childbirth
• pelvic surgery
• medication side effects
• any physically invasive trauma (not necessarily involving or even near the genitals)
• vaginismus chronic pain conditions
• Peri-menopause and menopause which cause drying of the vulvar and vaginal tissues because of reduced estrogen. Intercourse may cause “micro-tears” that cause pain and may lead to vaginismus.
• inadequate foreplay
• insufficient vaginal lubrication
• sexual abuse, rape, other sexual assault, or attempted sexual abuse or assault
• development of a medical condition

Emotional factors are:

• generalized anxiety
• anxiety about performance or because of guilt
• Stress
• fear of pain associated with penetration and with the “breaking” of the hymen at the first intercourse, or fear of pregnancy
• harm-avoidance behaviour
• traumatic life events, including rape or a history of abuse, or of witnessing these without being personally abused.
• domestic violence or similar conflict in the early home environment
• negative emotional reaction towards sexual stimulation, e.g. disgust both at a deliberate level and also at a more implicit level
• strict conservative moral education, which can elicit negative emotions
• fear of vagina not being wide or deep enough, and/or fear of partner’s penis being too large
• undiscovered or denied sexuality
• relationship problems, for example, having an abusive partner or feelings of vulnerability
• psychological causes
• a combination of causes

SYMPTOMS

Pain or discomfort during intercourse, or on insertion of tampon or speculum into vagina, is the first sign of vaginismus.

The symptoms vary between individuals. The main symptoms are:
• discomfort that may diminish during intercourse
• minor pain
• burning or stinging pain and tightness that persist
• penetration being difficult or impossible, and extreme pain if entry is forced
• generalized muscle spasm or breathing cessation during attempted intercourse
• long-term sexual pain with or without a known cause
• pain during tampon insertion
• pain during a gynecological examination

Pain subsides on withdrawal, but not always.

Women with vaginismus can and do get sexually aroused. But they may become anxious about sexual intercourse, and therefore avoid sex or vaginal penetration.

DIAGNOSIS

There is no definitive medical test to diagnose vaginismus. The diagnosis is based on medical history, gynaecological check, and teste to rule out other medical conditions that may be causing the problem. It may therefore be necessary to consult several specialists before a reliable diagnosis is made. Misdiagnosis is possible. And often it may be left undiagnosed. This is especially true when the symptoms occur only during intercourse and not during other vaginal insertions.

Many women are hesitant or shy or embarrassed to discuss their sex disorder with physicians, especially male doctors. This is especially true in India. So it may be advisable to consult a female doctor.

TREATMENT

Vaginismus is a treatable condition. The success rate is nearly one hundred percent. Treatment does not require drugs, hypnosis, surgery or any other complex invasive technique.

The aim of treatment is to reduce the automatic tightening of the muscles; and to remove or reduce the fear of pain, or any other fear, related to that may be related to vaginismus.

Treatment is physical: to reduce the automatic tightening of the muscles; and emotional: to reduce the fears that may underlie the problem. Both treatments run concurrently.

Physical

Physical treatment is a combination of pelvic-floor control exercises, insertion or dilation training, pain elimination techniques, and transition steps. Treatment steps can often be completed – in cooperation with the therapist – in the privacy of home and at a pace that suits the patient.

Kegel exercises improve control of the pelvic floor muscles.
• To identify your pelvic floor muscles, stop urination in midstream. If you succeed, you’ve got the right muscles.
• If you have difficulty identifying the muscles, insert a vaginal cone in the vagina and use the floor-muscles to hold it in place. That will help you identify the muscles.
• Always empty the bladder before doing Kegel exercises.
• Tighten your pelvic floor muscles, hold the contraction for five seconds, and then relax for five seconds. Try it four or five times in a row. Work up to keeping the muscles contracted for 10 seconds at a time, relaxing for 10 seconds between contractions.
• For best results, focus on tightening only your pelvic floor muscles. Do not flex the muscles in your abdomen, thighs or buttocks. Do not hold your breath during the exercise; breathe freely.
• Do at least three sets of 10 repetitions a day.
• You can do the exercises in any position, but it is easier to do them lying down at first.
• You can do Kegel exercises discreetly just about anytime,
• If you have trouble doing Kegel exercises, ask your therapist for help.
• Make Kegel exercises a permanent part of your daily routine.
• Results may take a few weeks to a few months to appear.

Insertion or dilation training begins by the woman touching an area as close as possible to the vagina without causing pain, and moving closer each day. Once she can do that, she should open the vaginal lips or labia. Next insert one finger, then two fingers, then three, and go progressively deeper without causing pain. Next she should learn to use the vaginal dilators (Hegar dilators), also called vaginal trainers, with the help of her therapist. She should insert a plastic dilator, or a cone shaped insert, and leave it in for about fifteen minutes. Next use a larger insert. Next her partner can put his penis next to vagina without entering. Once the woman is comfortable with it, the couple can try intercourse, building up progressively as in the case of insert. Use a lubricating jelly when practicing insertion.

Emotional

Emotional factors often underlie vaginitis. Education, counselling and psychotherapy therefore helps.

Psychological factors underlying vaginismus are fear of painful sex; the belief that sex is wrong or shameful (often the case with patients who had a strict religious upbringing); and traumatic early childhood experiences (not necessarily sexual in nature). Childhood sexual interference, and less positive attitudes about their sexuality, are other contributing factors. Lack of sexual knowledge or (non-sexual) physical abuse do not seem to be factors.

Education to make a woman understand her sexual anatomy and sexual response cycle – happenings during sexual arousal and intercourse and how parts of body work – helps her understand the pain and the processes her body goes through.

Emotional counselling by a counsellor specialized in sexual disorders helps the woman identify, express, and resolve any emotional factors that may be contributing to her vaginismus. Counsellor will teach relaxation techniques, and may use hypnosis, to help woman relax and feel more comfortable with intercourse. Joint counselling of the woman and her partner gives better results.

Pharmacologic

Experimental studies have shown that Botulinum toxin A (Botox) and lidocaine temporarily reduce the hypertonicity of the pelvic floor muscles. Anxiolytics and antidepressants have also been used along with psychotherapy modalities. But results from these types of pharmacologic therapies have not been consistent.

Treatment for primary and for secondary vaginismus is the same. But previous experience with successful penetration may result in a quicker resolution of secondary vaginismus.

Even after any underlying medical condition is corrected, pain may continue if the body has become conditioned to respond in this way.

Vaginismus may sometimes be mistaken for Dyspareunia in which painful intercourse is caused by a physical problem such as cysts, pelvic inflammatory disease, or vaginal atrophy. Vaginismus rarely requires surgery.

RELATIONSHIP

Sexual dysfunction like vaginismus adversely affects relationship and marriage. Therefore be proactive: discuss with your partner your feelings and fears about intercourse; and seek treatment at the earliest. Remember, treatment success rate is nearly one hundred percent; and most women recover and have a satisfying sexual life.
So do not hesitate; do not delay; do not hold back. Speak to your partner; speak to your therapist. Speak now.

REFERENCES:

1. Vaginismus: Cleveland Clinic
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15723-vaginismus

2. Obstetrics and Gynecology at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas
https://www.bcm.edu › … › Care Centers › Obstetrics and Gynecology › Conditions

3. Vaginismus: NHS UK
https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaginismus/
4. Women’s Health: Sex & Intimacy – WebMD
https://www.webmd.com › Women’s Health › Guide

5. Medical News Today
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/175261.php

6. Vaginimus: Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaginismus

7. What Is Vaginismus?
https://www.healthline.com/health/vaginismus

8. Vaginismus: Practo.com
https://www.practo.com/health-wiki/vaginismus-meaning-symptoms-and…/article

9. Health Direct
https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/vaginismus

10. Sexual Dysfunction in Women; MSD Manual
https://www.msdmanuals.com › … › Sexual Dysfunction in Women

11. Women’s Therapy Centre
https://www.womentc.com/conditions-and-treatments/penetration-pain…/vaginismus/

12. Vaginismus-diagnosis

13. Kegel-exercises: Healthline
https://www.healthline.com/health/kegel-exercises

Best Gynecologist in DelhiBest Gynecologist in South DelhiBest Gynecologist in Lajpat Nagar Delhi

Laparoscopic & Robotic Gynec Surgeon

“I treat the patient, not the diagnosis”

Dr (Prof) Sadhana Kala
Laparoscopic & Robotic Gynec Surgeon
See:
www.drsadhanakala.com